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What causes pelvic pain?

Pelvic pain can have various causes, including:

  • Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea)
  • Endometriosis
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Fibroids
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
  • Musculoskeletal issues
  • Digestive disorders
  • Pelvic congestion syndrome
  • Interstitial cystitis

The exact cause of pelvic pain should be determined by a healthcare professional through proper evaluation and diagnostic tests.

What is hymenectomy?

Hymenectomy is a surgical procedure in which the hymen, a thin membrane partially covering the opening of the vagina, is partially or completely removed. It may be performed for medical or personal reasons, such as relieving physical discomfort, addressing issues related to the hymen's structure, or for cultural or personal preferences.

What size of ovarian cyst is dangerous?

The size of an ovarian cyst alone does not necessarily determine its level of danger. Most ovarian cysts are harmless and resolve on their own without medical intervention. However, larger cysts, typically those larger than 5 centimeters (approximately 2 inches) in diameter, may have a higher risk of complications such as torsion (twisting), rupture, or causing pressure on surrounding structures. The nature, characteristics, and symptoms associated with the cyst are also important factors to consider when determining the appropriate course of action.

What are the first signs of PCOS?

The signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can vary, but some common early signs include:

  • Irregular or absent menstrual periods
  • Excessive hair growth (hirsutism) on the face, chest, back, or other areas
  • Acne or oily skin
  • Weight gain or difficulty losing weight
  • Thinning hair or hair loss on the scalp
  • Darkening of the skin, especially in areas such as the neck, groin, or underarms (acanthosis nigricans)
  • Insulin resistance or high blood sugar levels
  • Difficulty getting pregnant

What is a myomectomy?

A myomectomy is a surgical procedure performed to remove uterine fibroids while preserving the uterus. It is typically recommended for women who experience symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, or fertility issues caused by fibroids. Myomectomy can be performed through various approaches, including abdominal surgery, laparoscopy, or hysteroscopy, depending on the size, number, and location of the fibroids.

What is a fibroid?

A fibroid, also known as uterine leiomyoma or myoma, is a noncancerous growth that develops in the uterus. Fibroids are composed of muscle and connective tissue and can vary in size and location within the uterus. They are typically benign and can range from being very small to large enough to cause symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, or pressure on nearby organs.

What causes an abnormal Pap smear?

An abnormal Pap smear is typically caused by the presence of abnormal cells on the cervix. These abnormalities can be caused by various factors, including:

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: Certain strains of HPV can cause changes in cervical cells.
  • Inflammation or infection: Conditions such as cervicitis or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can result in cell changes.
  • Cervical dysplasia: Precancerous changes in cervical cells.
  • Other factors: Smoking, a weakened immune system, hormonal imbalances, or certain medications can also contribute to abnormal Pap smear results.

Further evaluation, such as colposcopy or additional tests, may be necessary to determine the cause and significance of the abnormal cells.

What is the treatment for abnormal Pap smears?

The treatment for abnormal cervical cells depends on the extent and severity of the cell changes. Common approaches include:

  • In some cases, especially for mild changes, close monitoring with regular Pap smears may be sufficient.
  • Colposcopy: A procedure in which the cervix is examined using a magnifying instrument (colposcope) to identify abnormal areas that may require further evaluation or treatment.
  • Biopsy: Removal of a small sample of tissue for laboratory analysis to determine the extent and type of abnormal cells.
  • Excisional procedures: Surgical removal of the abnormal tissue, such as loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or cold knife conization.
  • Cryotherapy: Freezing the abnormal cells to destroy them.
  • Laser therapy: Using laser energy to remove or destroy abnormal tissue.
  • Follow-up care: Regular monitoring with Pap smears to ensure the abnormal cells do not persist or progress.

The appropriate treatment option will depend on factors such as the severity of the abnormalities, age, desire for future fertility, and individual patient preferences. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and personalized treatment recommendations.

What are 4 symptoms of endometriosis?

Four common symptoms of endometriosis include:

  • Pelvic pain: Persistent or recurring pain in the pelvic region, which may worsen during menstruation.
  • Painful periods: Severe menstrual cramps that may be accompanied by lower back and abdominal pain.
  • Pain during intercourse: Discomfort or pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Infertility: Difficulty getting pregnant or experiencing recurrent miscarriages.

What are the treatment options for endometriosis?

Treatment options for endometriosis may include:

  • Pain medication: Over-the-counter pain relievers or prescribed medications to manage pain.
  • Hormonal therapy: Birth control pills, progestin therapy, or GnRH agonists to suppress estrogen and reduce the growth of endometrial tissue.
  • Surgery: Laparoscopic surgery to remove endometrial implants or, in severe cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be recommended.
  • Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): In cases of infertility, methods such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be used to help achieve pregnancy.